Guide to Cybersecurity Controls & Their Implementation

Explore types of cybersecurity controls and effective implementation strategies

Cyber security Control implementation, A must know concepts for CISSP Certification Exam

Cybersecurity Controls implementation is very testable topic in the CISSP Certification exam. While you can enrol in our CISSP Certification training to get an in-depth perspective, the blog will help you understand the core concepts for risk-based security control implementation.


Let’s get some overview about the security controls.

The digital landscape is rife with security challenges, necessitating robust cybersecurity measures. In this guide, we delve into the several types of cybersecurity controls, their significance, and implementation techniques, ensuring a fortified digital environment.

Understanding Cybersecurity Control Types

Knowing the basic kinds of controls is crucial when stepping into the field of cybersecurity. Three primary forms of cybersecurity controls can be broadly classified as follows:

  • Administrative controls
  • Technical or also called as Logical controls.
  • Physical controls

Administrative Controls

Administrative controls concentrate on rules, regulations, and guidelines created to oversee and improve general security. Risk management frameworks, security rules, and employee training programs are a few examples.

The guidelines and protocols known as administrative controls establish the standard for cybersecurity measures within a company. They offer the structure for controlling security risks, guaranteeing adherence, and encouraging a security-aware staff culture.

Few Examples includes.

  • Training Programs for Employees: The execution of staff training initiatives is a crucial component of administrative controls. Staff members are taught cybersecurity best practices, threat awareness, and the value of following security policy in these seminars.
  • Policies and Procedures for Security: well-documented rules in place. Risk mitigation requires the establishment of thorough security rules and processes. Establishing incident response strategies, password restrictions, and access controls are all part of this. Organizations can react to cybersecurity issues quickly and efficiently if they have the policies and procedures defined.

Technical or logical Controls

Using technology to secure systems and data is known as technical control. This covers access control methods, encryption, firewalls, and antivirus programs. To protect digital assets against cyberattacks, technical measures are essential.

Few Examples includes.

  • Systems for detecting intrusions and firewalls : Incoming and outgoing network traffic is monitored and controlled by firewalls, which operate as a barrier between trusted internal networks and untrusted external networks. By continuously monitoring for questionable activity, intrusion detection systems (IDS) supplement firewalls and offer an extra degree of security.
  • Software for Antivirus and Endpoint Security : Endpoint protection is essential for things like PCs and mobile devices. The identification and neutralization of malware, ransomware, and other hostile entities that may jeopardize the security of digital assets is mostly dependent on antivirus software and endpoint protection solutions.
  • Protecting Data via Encryption : The execution of staff training initiatives is a crucial component of administrative controls. Staff members are taught cybersecurity best practices, threat awareness, and the value of following security policy in these seminars. Securing sensitive data during transmission and storage is crucial in the digital era. Data is rendered unintelligible code through encryption, guaranteeing that unapproved parties cannot access it even if it is intercepted.

Physical Controls

Protecting physical assets, including servers and data centres, requires the use of physical controls. This covers surveillance cameras, biometric entry systems, and safe building architecture. Physical controls, however, sometimes disregarded, are essential to a thorough cybersecurity plan.

Physical controls play a crucial role in safeguarding the physical infrastructure that supports digital activities, even though digital risks usually grab most of the attention.

Few Examples includes.

  • Systems of Biometric Access: An additional layer of identification is added by biometric access systems, which include fingerprint and retina scanners. By limiting unauthorized personnel's access to critical places, they lessen the possibility of unauthorized physical entry.
  • Security guards and cameras for surveillance : Keeping a close check on physical areas is essential. Together with security guards, surveillance cameras serve as a deterrent and give facilities the ability to react swiftly to any security-related issues.
  • Designing Secure Facilities : Physical space architecture is critical to cybersecurity, from server rooms to data centres. Reinforced walls, access control points, and redundant systems are examples of characteristics that are used in secure facility design to reduce physical threats.

Based on the purpose of the Controls, the security controls can further be categorised under the following categories:

  • Deterrent Controls: Meant for discouraging the attacker.
  • Preventive controls: meant for preventing the risk from materializing.
  • Detecting: Detect any security violations, deviations, errors, or intentional actions.
  • Corrective: These are meant to perform corrections to get things moving again.
  • Recovery: These controls are usually categorised as Countermeasures to recover from any disruptions.
  • Compensating: Theas are temporary controls implemented in-lieu of the original controls due to financial, technical limitation on the part the organisation. Compensating controls should be implemented in a time bound fashion and should not be a replacement for the original controls.

The must remember concepts for CISSP Certification Exam:

  • The controls selection should be based on the risk to the organisation. More stringent controls must be implemented for assets which drive more value and need higher protection.
  • The cost of the control should not exceed the value of risk mitigation. This means that for mitigating a risk of 500 USD, it is not advisable to implement a control worth 1000USD. This aspect can be measured and validated through the Cost: Benefit Analysis.
  • Based on the requirement a control can be pro-active (aka Safeguard) or Reactive (Countermeasure)
  • Controls must be psychologically acceptable to the users for effectiveness and long-term success. You cannot implement a DNA based Biometric system for authenticating users just because it is highly accurate. 😊 You need to understand how comfortable itis for the end users and the control should be psionically acceptable to the end user else they will always try to bypass the control.
  • Every control must have a defined control objective and based on which the Cybersecurity professionals must establish the Key performance Indicators and Key Risk Indicators for evaluating he control effectiveness.
  • Controls needs to mature over time through continuous gap analysis and continual improvements.
  • When a control is no more effective, it is to be updated or replaced with a more effective control based on continuous risk analysis.
  • Incident response program can be a good indicator of the effectiveness of security controls.


Every company has a different risk posture and likewise the controls to be implemented for mitigating the risk differs from company to company. Every company must ensure that the scoping and tailoring of controls activity is performed with due diligence to perfectly tailor the controls as per the organisation needs.

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Categories: : Cybersecurity